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 For Ivy Lee    Private

I should be delighted if you [Dr Ivy Lee - New York Public Relations Consultant - and a former employer of Gareth in 1931] show it to friends but some of  those I interviewed did not want it to be quoted publicly.


 Gareth Jones Memorandum - DECEMBER, 1932

The questions which especially interested me during my few days stay in Cologne were the following: 

  1. Schleicher's programme, his character, and the attitude of the Parties towards him.

  2. The decline of the Nazis: prospects of Monarchy and the growth Communism.

  3. The unemployment situation and what is being done to tackle unemployment.

  4. The general economic situation.

  5. The outlook on foreign affairs.

I interviewed the Lord Mayor, the Director of Town Planning, former Minister for the Interior (Reich) Sollman, the three Professors at the University specialising in economics, banking and industry, the British Consul General (with whom I stayed), the Director for Poor Relief, the Foreign Affairs, Economic and Political experts of the Kölnische Zeitung and of two other papers, a Nazi, steel industrialist, Baron von Humboldt, the head of the Banking House von Stein, and others.

Since my stay was too short to make a real study of the situation and to draw conclusions for Germany as a whole, what follows is mainly a series of notes of conversations with a few observations.  This visit ended a period of ten years during which I have paid one or more visits to Germany every year. 


The new Chancellor of Germany, General von Schleicher’s broadcast on December 15th his declaration of policy.  He said that his programme contained only one point, the provision of work.  Nothing else interested Germany, least of all constitutional changes which filled no stomachs.  He wished to colonise 1,300,000 acres in the Eastern Frontier District.  He was in favour of compulsory service in the framework of a Militia.  He stated that the voluntary labour corps, the Reich Board for the Physical Training of Youth, and subsidised sports clubs, which were throttling party political spirits would receive funds for the Government, especially for voluntary groups of young unemployed.  The Chancellor said that in economic matters he would do whatever seemed sensible at the moment without worrying his head about dogmas. 

 Attitude of the Social Democrats. 

Herr Sollman, former Minister of the Interior (Social Democrat) for the Reich, told me: The Social Democrats stand in definite opposition to Schleicher because he is carrying on the same policy as von Papen.  The difference is that Schleicher is much cleverer and more cunning than Papen.  I have known Schleicher for well for fourteen years.  He is clever enough to try to avoid a conflict with parliament, but he wants a defeat of the Social Democrats.  The people around Schleicher want a strong authoritarian Government based on the Reichswehr: The Bourgeoisie, the landowners and heavy industry. 

“Schleicher’s talks with the Trades Unions are a result of his cleverness.  Papen had a front attack on the Trade Unions and on the Social Democrats but Schleicher is trying to split the two.  The Trade Union leaders are advising him and he will listen to them.  A split between the Trade Unions and the S. D. party is what he is aiming at.  The T.U’s are in a difficult position.  If they go too much towards the right they will push millions of S.D.’s to Communism. 

“There may be a vote of no confidence in the Reichstag in January.  The S.D’s and the Communists will certainly vote against the Government, and the Trade Union leaders will also vote with the Party because our discipline is very strong.  What the Nazis will do is uncertain.  Hitler, of course attacks the Government but do not take his speech too seriously, he might enter a Government Coalition.  He is in a critical situation and does not know what to do.  The Nazis can only govern as a dictatorship crushing opposition; therefore, if Hitler goes into Coalition Government he will disappoint the voters.  Still he will want to avoid new elections because he has no money.  I have just come back from Berlin and there are 1500 men collecting for Hitler on the Berlin streets, but they only collect altogether 80 to 100 marks a day. It is a terrible situation for Hitler; still he might make a pact with Schleicher.”           

Just as we were talking a messenger came in to say that in Cassel 600 storm troop men had left the Nazi Party.  Two minutes later another messenger brought the news of local elections which showed a very sharp decline in the Nazi vote. 

I then asked Herr Sollmam whether Schleicher would govern without the Reichstag.  He answered, “No, Schleicher will not ignore the Reichstag.  If there is a vote of no confidence he will be in favour of elections which would strengthen his position.  He would be able to have more combinations and there would be no more Nazi Communist majority.  I think Hitler might lose 40 or 50 seats. Schleicher will maintain the constitutional conflict as long as possible.            


A clever Government can do almost anything with Article 48.  Even the budget was carried by Article 48. 

"The Reichbanner is not for Schleicher.  They have definitely decided not to join in the Sports Board.  I am sorry personally for our Young people, pea soup, a piece of meat - to have a full stomach - is a. sensation”.

The Centre Party and Schleicher

The Political Editor of the Kölnische Zeitung told me; "The Centre supports Schleicher loyally.  To us he is a man with common sense.  No other man is possible.  We Catholics have an interest to support a Government with authority which is also Democratic.  The Catholic Church itself is a mixture of Democracy and Authority.  80 per cent of our clergy come from the people.           

“We do not think he wi1l support a Coup d’etat.  He is, of course, only for a transitional period.” 

Dr. Adenauer, Lord Mayor of Cologne, said that the Centre Party were adopting a policy of “wait and see” towards Schleicher. 

Character of Schleicher 

The Berliner Tageblatt describes Schleicher thus:- ­It states that Schleicher is against constitutional experiment, that he had learned to be socially minded in his home, and was never allowed to be rude to a servant or a beggar.  The views of Schleicher are not stable but adapted to circumstances.  Behind his frank thoughts there is a scepticism which takes nothing too tragically, a kind of irony.  He has charming naturalness.  He is a General, and the son of an officer, but also a modern man, and has no similarity with the snobbish type of Prussian officer.  Still, there is in the General’s mentality a hatred of pacifists, and he might well play a Cromwellian part, but he is not the bogy and the militarist which the French imagine him to be.  He is an able army organiser, and wants a common understanding with France.  He wishes to unite the masses now split into organised political battalions into a coalition with a common front.  He is flexible and chameleon -like.  He has been moderate in canceling anti-social decrees and in giving an amnesty for the transport strikers. 

The comments of the Frankfurter Zeitung, December 17th are interesting.  This democratic paper congratulates the new Chancellor on not promising a heaven on earth, but in directing his aim at the Chancellor of the German people.  A man who is thus going to fight the bitter misery of unemployment has a right to be left to his work.  He is socially minded.  Papen aroused the mistrust of the nation, but Schleicher knows that the country’s confidence is necessary.  Nevertheless, the F.Z. is afraid that he has too many tactics, but lacks far-reaching strategy.  It regrets his lack of political principles. 

Schleicher and Parliament 

It is significant that Schleicher spoke to the nation over the wireless and not to the Reichstag.  He prepared his statement himself, consulted none of his Ministers, except to ask certain economic details and did not submit the text for their approval.

Pertinax on Schleicher 

Pertinax commenting on the adjournment of the Reichstag to the second fortnight of January says that Papen’s plans are being taken up a man who is far more clever and can work with all camps.  At present, says Pertinax, his great idea is to put the different military societies into the so-called National Sports Bureau under ex-Generals.  What were formally forces for civil war must now be regular forces obeying the Government.  Soon the same uniform, probably that of the steel helmets, will be imposed on all.  Schleicher hopes that Hitler’s Storm Troops will also be melted into the mass.

The Christian Trade Unions and Schleicher 

Kaiser, the leader, said in a speech, that originally the Christian T.U’s had mistrusted the new Chancellor but now he was known as “THE SOCIALLY MINDED GENERAL”.  The T. U’s had the impression that here was a man who understood the working class.  The Christian T.U.s had a good impression of Schleicher as did the other T.U’s, but their confidence would have to be gained by deeds.  Already, said the Christian T.U’s leader, there is a wave of conciliation throughout the people, and the attempt of reactionaries to seize power had failed.  The man who now governed bad turned successfully to the people and the wave of mistrust end revolt which had made Germany revolutionary was disappearing. 

Views of Steel Industrialist. 

        Herr Pastor, the Steel Industrialist disliked Schleicher.  “He is coquetting too much with the T.U’5.  He is an officer with rubber soles, not an officer with real military boots.  He is not an Iron Chancellor like Bismarck.  He is a victim of his own policy.  He did not want to become Chancellor.  He is intriguing and ambitious.  It is notorious that he threw over Seeckt, Gessler, T, Bruning, Gruener, and Papen, and now he is coming out of his role of “eminence grise” into the open.  He manoeuvres too much and is making arrangements with the left.  He is sphinx like, very clever, but I thought his broadcast was slovenly, arrogant, and vulgar.  He has got the Prussian officer’s tradition and no great culture.  Hitler should be given a chance. Schleicher is all things to all men; a weather cook, changing with the wind. 

“Some Industrialists are opposed to Schleicher because they are afraid he is for agricultural quotas but many say, at least he is not so bad as von Papen.  “Baron von Humbold was also afraid that Schleicher would give in too much to the Socialists. 

Economists on Schleicher. 

Professor Eckert: “There is confidence in Schleicher and the men around him are good, but I do not believe be will last long.  He will certainly rule without the Reichstag because he has the Reichswehr.” 

Herr von Stein, of the Banking House von Stein, said: “Business people do not reckon on a long Schleicher reign.  He only gives himself a couple of months, watch out for January.  There will be difficulties with the Nazis.“ 

Professor Schöffler: “Schleicher rejects all doctrines.  He is like a Englishman in his rejection of theory.” 

Another Socialist View. 

The Political Editor of the Rheinische Zeitung, which was founded by Karl Marx, said: “We are not so bitterly opposed to Schleicher as we were to Papen.  We hated Papen but our opposition to Schleicher is only a Parliamentary opposition, a democratic opposition.  Schleicher never attacks Marxism as Papen always did.  He is a tactician and a cynic. 


The Nazi Split 

On all hands there was evidence of a serious split in the Nazi Party of rapidly declining influence end of a grave financial situation.  Hitler is still considered by some industrialists as a barrier against Communism, but they are not likely to subscribe very much more to his funds, as the steel industrialists Consul Pastor told me.  “The why industrialists supported Hitler was because he was against Communism.  Half of the people who voted for Hitler will vote for Communism.  Hitler is without means, and industry cannot help him very much.  

Hitler's Move away from Socialism. 

The Rheinische Zeitung reports that Hitler is forbidding Socialism.  Hitler's new economic advisor is to be Herr Funk, former editor of the Berliner Borsenzeitung, a nationalistic and capitalistic paper.  Hitler is moving away from Socialism in order that heavy industry may have confidence and enable the Nazis to pay their 12 million mark (£600,000) debt.

            The figure of £600,000 debt is confirmed from several sources.  Strasser's ‘a quarrel is also a sign that Hitler is moving away from Socialism. 

Disillusion of Hitler's Followers. 

Many of the young people who joined the Nazis because they thought that they would obtain jobs as policemen in Hitler’s Dictatorship are leaving the Party. 

Bookshops, a Clue to German Politics. 

Last year and in 1930 I noticed that the bookshops were selling very large quantities of books on National Socialism.  They were the rage.  To-day I hardly saw any in the bookshops.  There were fewer books on politics end more on general subjects, such as travel, a sign which seems to indicate a wave of political apathy.  One favourite book, however, is 'Soldaten' which tells of the deeds of Prussian officers and soldiers since the wars of liberation to the present day. 


A large increase in the Communist Party is probable and it is thought by many experts that the Communist Party vote, will reach the same level as the Nazi vote did.  The Communist International has decided upon a more active policy in Germany Personally however, I think there is very little danger of a political revolt.  The Reichswehr is too strong, the Communists are badly armed, and German Communists are the sort of people who parade in the very beat clothes with clean collars, and ties. 


The question of Monarchy has become less actual.  A keen Monarchist said to me, “Every respectable German is a Monarchist, and must be a Monarchist, but to begin a Monarchy now would be a very great tactical mistake.  The intelligence of the Germans will not permit the return of the Kaiser, and we do not think that the Crown Prince is serious minded enough.  Ruprecht of Bavaria is a Catholic and thus out of the question.  A return of Monarchy is impossible for the next few years. “ 

What will happen if Hindenburg dies? 

If Hindenburg dies the President of the Supreme Court of Justice takes over authority.  This is a very important step, which has been voted by the Reichstag recently.  It stops the schemes for bringing in the Crown Prince.  It stops the Chancellor taking over complete political power 

When Hindenburg dies, therefore, Dr. Bumke, President of the Supreme Court takes over his authority.  Dr. Bumke is irremovable from his present post, and is not old, somewhere in the fifties.  He is a Judge not a politician, and is trusted.  I consider that this step is a very wise and favourable one for German stability. 



Unemplyment Benefit and Poor Relief. 

The City Director for Poor Belief explained to me the situation in Cologne. She stated that in Cologne 210,000 out of a population of 730,000, namely 28.4 % of the population are being helped. 

The unemployment benefit (Reich Insurance) only lasts 36 days, and then the unemployed have to obtain relief from the towns.  The average amount received per head (including children) from Poor Relief is 21.9 marks per month (not per week).  The average married couple in Cologne receive 51 marks per month with 12 marks extra for each child, it they have no other resources.  Poor Relief costs the town of Cologne £3,000,000 per year.  

The City Director gave me the following example of a family budget of a father and mother with two children who had no other means.  They would  receive 75 marks per month, of which they would have to pay about 25 marks in rent.  This left 50 marks, of which 8 marks would have to be spent on coal, leaving 42 marks. This meant 10 marks per week for tour people, or 2/6 per week per person.  Therefore, this family would have to live on 1.50 marks per day, to be spent not only on food, but on light clothes, shoes, etc.  Bread is dear, 50 pfennigs (6d) for 3 1/2 lbs. 

This family would spend about 30 pfennigs of the 1.50 marks on wool, soap, clothes eto, leaving 1.20 marks per day for food.  This is usually divided thus. (The meals, of course, are for four persons.) 

Breakfast 30 pfennigs (3 1/2d.) Substitute coffee with a couple of slices of black bread.

Lunch   50 pfennigs (6d.)     Potatoes, with cabbage or thick soup.  Bread is too expensive for lunch.

Supper 40 pfennigs (4 1/2d) Potatoes. 

This family would have no milk. 

Health conditions are getting worse end worse.  Bedclothing is short.  Many children cannot go to school because they have no shoes.  Often a child being given a free meal will eat eight plates of soup.  There is a terrible lack of warm clothing.  These conditions are undermining the morale of the nation. 

Unemployment among the older middle classes. 

I was deeply impressed by the people who came for the free meal of soup which was being given to former middle class people.   Cultured elderly people who still maintain themselves clean and respectable, and young artists, teachers, professors, with intellectual faces, but absolutely down and out, came for this free meal.  Some of the people there were once very wealthy, now they have absolutely no means but they still maintain a German pride in a respectable appearance 

Unemployment among the students 

Professor Shöffler, head of the English Department, gave me a striking picture of the despair of the students.  He said it is absolutely impossible to get posts.  Of the students from our faculty who went down last summer NOT ONE has had a post.  In the faculty of Law it is just the same.  They will probably be unemployed for ten years getting no relief.  Take my student, Miss Bredenfeld.  She is pretty and clever, a Doctor of Philosophy, of good family, but she cannot get a job.  She is now a Communist.  Communism will certainly grow among the younger academic generation. 

"There is no outlet for the 100,000 who have left college in the last the few years.  There is no army, no navy, no colonies. 

“The Government is cutting down expenses in education and increasing the number of pupils in each class.  The students have next to nothing to live on.” 

Tackling Unemployment 

The Director of Town Planning described to me the method used to tackle unemployment.  He said that there were three methods

            (1)       Land Settlement.

            (2)       Voluntary Labour Service.

            (3)       Public Works. 

(1)  Land Settlement: There are about 200,000 young Germans in the Land Settlements and the number is to be increased.  The Reich government gives 2,000 marks (£100) towards each house in a settlement.  In the first years it is given free, but later they will be a small rate of interest to be paid. 

In Cologne individual groups of unemployed have been formed called Building Groups, consisting of a carpenter, bricklayer, locksmith roof builder, and unskilled workers.  These groups are chosen by the poor Relief Office.  They then help each other to build houses on a settlement where each has his pig,  goats and chickens. They receive Poor Relief pay plus extra food, and cheap tramfares.  These settlements are usually in the suburbs, and usually financed by the Reich. 

In East Prussia, as Schleicher pointed out in his wireless speech, l,300,000 acres are to be settled. 

(2)   Voluntary Labour Service: These are people who voluntarily devote themselves such works as building cycle paths, parks, etc.  They are of the age of 18 to 25, and are usually in groups of people of the same views.  The Christian T.U. group; Steel Helmet Group, etc.

This is usually work which could be given to private con tractors, who still attack it.  In the beginning there was great opposition from the Trade Unions, but finally they became reconciled 

(3)    Public Works: The Government is giving money to such works as iron-bridges, roads,etc.  The Government is to help towns which want electricity machines but cannot pay for them 

Financing of Public Works. 

The Lord Mayor of Cologne pointed out how they were unable as a city to do much in the way of public works because they had no capital.  He demanded a strong initiative from the Reich.  He thought that there would be an expansion of credit in new ways.  But, the financing plans were not to be decided until about a fortnight.  He said that the Government was going to advance money for necessary repairs of houses.           

The economic expert of the Kölnieche Volkzeitung explained to me his ideas on public works as follows: It was not quite clear, he said, what measures the Government would take, but von Papen had issued certain “Taxation Notes” which were based upon the income if the state in future better times and were to be redeemed from 1934 to 1939.  He said that between £50,000,000 and £75,000,000 would be spent on public works.  A tremendous amount of land reclamation had been done and large stretches of moors had been drained.  Much had been done through voluntary work and he believed that next year voluntary workers would be given one standard uniform.  The result of voluntary work had been very good.  Part of it was paid from the surplus receipts of the unemployment insurance.  He was enthusiastic about the settlements to be carried out in the east, but he said, it must be none primitively and simply.  He thought that they would settle a million at the most within several years time. 

Some of the work was given to private firms by communes but there was a lot of work which was too deer to be done through the ordinary economic process and this was done by the state.  The programme, therefore, seems to be a mixture of private initiative and of state interference, which is very similar to the system I studied in Rome in the summer. 

Professor Eckert, economist, was keen on Schleicher’s determination to carryout a policy of public works, settling men and building roads.  He said, “Our unemployed do not starve to but they starve mentally.” 

An industrialist was doubtful whether the plans would provide work for more than about 300,000 men, and could not see how they could be carried out wither creating emergency currency. 

A British official said it was a deep dark mystery to him as to how they got their funds.  The Banks had been giving great credits to the towns and there was a hidden inflation of credit. 

My final conversation in Cologne was with a young fellow selling apples and cigarettes on the station.  He said, “If I lost my job I would have to live on 4/6 a week.  A married man with a family gets about 12 marks a week.”  A friend of mine, an official, had to on an expedition to search for weapons, and said that he found in one family the children were eating potato peelings.  There is no doubt about it, he concluded we must have a big army or a militia again.”



 Signs of Improvement 

There are certain symptoms of improvement. The Deutsche Volkswirt writes “The symptoms of an economic improvement in Germany are numerous and unmistakable … Unemployment is not greatly higher than last year, although the spectre of seven to eight millions out of work was expected ... If political calm remains an upward trend may be expected in the spring.” 

There is an increase in the production of iron and steel.  Electricity production in October reached the same figure as last year.  Shipping shows an improvement in the last few months, but is much worse than a year ago.

Shipping laid up.

Dec.     lst. 1931           765,000 tons     19 % of total tonnage.

Sept.    1st 1932         1,425,000    “     56 %     “        “

Nov.    1st, 1932          l,194,970     “    50.7%    "        “

Dec.     lst, 1932          1,170,000    "     30%       “         “ 

Unemployment  here are now 5,358,000 out of work.  he seasonal increase in unemployment has not been so large as last year.

Stock Exchange.  here has been a recovery on the Stock Exchange in the last few months.  o take two representative shares, Fereinigte Stahlwerke, which dropped to 10 has now risen to 32, whilst Seimen and Halske (electricity) which dropped to 95 has recovered to 124. 

Herr von Stein, of the Banking House von Stein, said, “There are slow signs of improvement.  The shops are satisfied with the Christmas business, people are buying again, but only cheap materials are being bought. 

There is more confidence in Schleicher than in von Papen.  The Stock Exchange is a brighter sign.  Moreover, as long as Luther is at the head of the Reichsbank our currency is safe.” 

Professors at the Cologne University thought that there was a slight recovery because stocks of goods bad declined so low, but as one of them said, “I do not promise much from this recovery.” 

The steel industrialist, Consul Pastor, had little faith in the continuation of the recovery.  He said “There is a slight enlivening of industry and finance, due firstly to empty stocks, and secondly to speculation.  But is it a real recovery?  I do not think so.  A Chinese philosopher said twelve hundred years ago that if men could not bring their minds and morale into line with mechanical progress they would perish.  That is where we are to-day.  I see no hope, but I may be wrong.” 


Some people thought that inflation was probable, others believed that as long as Luther was in the Reichsbank the currency would be safe.  Consul Pastor, Industrialist, said, “I cannot see how we can avoid inflation.  If we cannot bring six million unemployed into production I cannot see where we can get the means to keep them alive.” 

Professor Eckert said that there were two alternatives before Germany.  The first was Inflation, which would be disastrous.  It would mean revolutions and riots.  He feared a great world inflation.  Secondly, if Inflation were avoided, however he saw another alternative.  Perhaps they had reached bottom.  He believed there might be a slow recovery interrupted by recessions.

Professor Eckert pointed out the dangers before Germany.  He said “The Budget” at the Reich is in disorder.  There is a large deficit and the financial situation of the states and of the towns is very bad. Cologne and Frankfurt cannot now meet certain bonds railing due.  The burden of debt towers more and more.  Modified inflation in Germany is almost impossible unless we tackle the burden of debts by drastic cutting down of capital and conversions; there is no other way out except inflation. 

Herr Sullmann, former Minister of the Interior, was also afraid of Inflation.  He said “I am afraid there will be moves in the direction of Inflation.  We have got ‘Taxation Notes’ which are now to be given to the communes to pay for public works.  This will necessitate twenty notes in exchange for these ‘Taxation Notes’; that means that the one and a half million marks which are to be issued as ‘Taxation Notes’ will become marks in circulation.  Hilterding and I fear an inflation.  In Germany every man is an expert in Inflation.  As soon as the danger is known there will be a run on the banks, and people will take their money out end buy goods.  A sign of it will also be a rise in common stocks (shares) on the Stock Exchange.  But I should never write this in my paper.” 

On the other hand there are strong forces working for a stable currency.  Professor Walb, expert on banking, expressed this when he said, “We will right inflation with all the weapons in our power.  No, I do not think there will be inflation.  We will out down capital, out down debts, and have a cleansing of the debt burden.” 

The irremovability of Luther is a strong factor against inflation 


There is very bitter feeling among industrialists against the agricultural quotas.  These, said Professor Walb, sabotaged Papen’s programme and had injured Germany exports, but certain concessions had been made by Germany. 


I heard little which led me to hope that there will be a reduction of tariffs, but Schleicher will probably not raise the tariff any higher.  Tariffs have made foodstuffs dear in Germany, and are one of the main causes of the dissension between agriculture and industry. 

State Control of industry. 

The economic expert of the Kölnische Zeitung said, “It does not seem probable that the Government will go much further in the direction of state ownership of industry.  In the aluminium industry shares are owned by the Government. 

Absence Panic 

I was struck by the absence of panic.  The last time I was in Germany there were fears of a sudden catastrophe; now no one expressed these fears, in spite of the profound misery of the vast majority of the people. 



Germany's Future Policy on "Equality of Rights" 

It is highly probable that Germany will demand the demilitarisation of the French frontiers. The Germans in Cologne believe that the principle of the Equality of Rights justifies them in claiming a zone of 50 kilometres within the French frontier where the French shall have no weapons, or soldiers.  The Badische Presser says that now Germany has Equality of Rights there shall be no more unilateral measures, and that Germany will insist that France shall not only destroy her eastern fortifications but also suppress her aviation camps munition depots, and garrisons in a zone equivalent to the German demilitiarised zone.  

I asked Herr Borowski whether be thought this would happen.  (He is the Foreign affairs editor of the Moderate National Volkishe Zeitung).  He replied, ”Certainly.. If this is not given us we will claim the right to have troops in Cologne.  It is a violation of German sovereignty not to be able to have the Reichswehr in the Rhineland.  What if there should be riots?  Germany would then have to appeal to an outside body for permission to send troops into a part of her own territory.” 

The Army. 

There is strong feeling among all classes that a large militia, or people’s army, should be introduced as soon as possible.  This feeling is shared by Socialists and Nationalists alike.  The Socialist, Herr Sollmann, for example said “I am in favour of a smaller Reichswehr and the creation of a large militia.  The Reichswehr is a danger.  This Pretorian Guard gives twelve years training and after that soldiers get precedence everywhere posts, in offices.  It is also dangerous from a point of view of political power. 

"We must have discipline after the young men leave school. 

"A large army is also a force for national unity.  Before the war 400 men would be receiving training in the Army.  Catholics would share the same hut as Jews; Socialists as Conservatives: and townsfolk with peasants.  They got to know each other.  Germany is divided.  A Nazi will not speak to a Socialist; a Red Front Fighter thinks of the Steel Helmet an enemy.  If only the young people could work together in the army. 

"Today for the German youth the army is a romantic ideal; if the young people were drilled and cursed at; if they had to sweat and have blisters, they would against militarism." 

If those are the views opinion of the Socialist the opinion of Nationalists can be imagined. Professor Schöffler said “The army is organised unemployment.  It will take 500,000 young people from the streets. Moreover, it the state does not play soldiers the parties will.”       


            Germany’s attainment of Equality of Status is greeted as a success, but hopes for real disarmament are modified.  I did not get the impression that there was a tremendous  wave of militarism but, of course, I was in Catholic Rhineland demilitarized Cologne , a very bad place to judge. .


There is a feeling of opposition to rearmament among many tax payers but among steel, leather and uniform firms there is certain support.  There will be financial difficulties, nevertheless, the formation of a large People’s Army  seems inevitable. 

December 20th,1932 
                     Gareth Jones







Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Germany.


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