from Gareth Jones notes. February 1935
letter of introduction from the Japanese Ambassador in London led Gareth
to contact Eliji Amau (Amô) the spokesman at the Japanese Foreign Office
as soon as he arrived in Tokyo. One
year previously this Japanese had proposed the
“Amau Doctrine”. He
stated that Japan had a special mission to maintain peace and order in
East Asia and opposed any financial assistance to China by foreign
countries. This statement was accurately termed in China and elsewhere
as “the Japanese Asian Monroe Doctrine,” which boldly and openly
challenged the Open Door Policy and Nine-Power Treaty system.
described Amau’s office as being in a terrible wooden shack. He had lots of black hair, a roundish face with big glasses and
looked rather serious. At his
first Press Conference there were about 50 journalists assembled to talk
with Mr. Amau. Amau
introduced them to young Japanese diplomats who appeared very embarrassed.
They bowed to the journalists, and some went to the English
and some to the Americans.
stated that: “The Japanese policy to China is to maintain peace and
friendly relations. Benefit
to Japan to keep peace in East Asia. Japan has been standing like a watchdog in East Asia.
We have fought several times for that. Other powers have an interest in China, but ours is more vital.
The Chinese question to us is a matter of life or death. The British have a considerable interest, which is not necessarily
vital. The U.S. is interested
but only economically and commercially. China is a vast country.
the beginning of the Washington Conference, Briand asked, “What is China?”
failed to answer. In 1920
Soviet Russia compiled a Treaty with Outer Mongolia, by which each control
ports in respect of recognising benefit Government. Since then Outer Mongolia sent Ambassador to Moscow and Moscow sent
to Korea Government representatives.
Government commanded Treaty at Peking and Mukden with China authority, by
which the Government respected temporary integrity of China. Government was helping the Sun Yat-sen Government in Canton.
Borodin represented the Government in Canton, and Canton government
with dealt independently. Therefore
at the time Canton was the Facto authority. 1920 Mongolian conclusion treaty with Soviets.
In 1924 Mukden concluded Treaty with Government. Today Sinkiary is virtually under the influence of the Soviet Outer
Mongolia. Other day Chinese
Consul in Novostrik was returning home to China and had to apply for visa
from the Soviet authorities.
Tsarist times there was a conference in the presence of the Tsar and they
discussed to find the way of penetration of the Far East and ungroup port.
A route was finally decided upon through Siberia, Manchuria, Harbin,
Dairien and Port Arthur. 1895
we fought with Japan for the lease of Liaotung peninsula. In 1895-1905 China concluded a secret alliance with Russia.
China promised materials for building of the Russian Court. The Russians promised to help China in the war between China and
have been endeavouring to maintain peace in the Far East. China has had a civil war for 25 years, but we desire China
restored some day.”
expect equal opportunities for foreign powers. League of Nations attacked
Japan, because Japan closed door on China to make the China Sea a closed
sea. It is not Japan, but the
League of Nations who closed the doors to Japan.
the time of the Manchurian Incident it was resolved by the League of
Nations (Feb 24th, 1932) that the China boycott since September
18th 1931 is recognised as a reprisal. The China boycott is legalised by the League of Nations decision
and the principle of open door was closed to us. It was
instigated by the Euro-American powers.
are concerned about any communist presence in East Asia, but we have no
intention of interfering with Chinese internal affairs. Manchukuo will
separate China and Soviet Russia. We
estimate there are 200,000 Soviet troops on the border. We have no intention to fight, but if the Soviets interfere with
Manchukuo affairs, we will fight. We
must defend Manchukuo”.
later press conference Mr Amau discussed British dominions attitude to
racism. In South Africa the
restriction of the Japanese immigrant was strictest. There, even the consul had the greatest difficulty in entering a
restaurant or finding a hotel. Australia
was very much better. Japan
only wanted free entry of their merchants and was not going to invade
Australia. Japan imports more
from Germany than she exports as Germany is restricting Japanese goods,
and in banking and shipping they have a number of regulations by which
they impose many different conditions on Japanese traders. Germany proposes to buy soya beans from Manchukuo and wants to sell
more to Japan but at present there is no political arrangement with
the press conference Amau reviewed the current aviation situation in
Japan. In Britain and U.S. it
was different owing to the mountains, atmosphere and conditions. In Manchukuo aviation is getting on very rapidly, because there are
plenty of landing places and atmospherics is good. The Japanese Army and Navy have made great progress.
They were one of the five largest aeronautic powers, but civilian
aviation was very poor. There
was a lot of rivalry between civilian some of whom are without jobs and
army and naval aviation. In
Japan it was difficult to find landing places as the land was over
cultivated. He emphasised the
quality of the pilots, the number of planes and aircraft carriers and the
faith in German airships. He informed the journalists that the Pacific Aviation Co.
would be organised in June or July to fly from Tokyo to San Francisco, via
the Aleutian Islands and Alaska using Zeppelins. Since the Manchurian and Shanghai troubles, the military flying
corps had improved greatly and they had increased their equipment. In the recent Jehol conflict in Manchuria the corps took part in
the battle by bombing and carried ammunition to the advancing army. In this region, where the transport by land was very difficult, the
supply of goods and arms to the advancing army by aeroplane was the only
means available at the time.